Criminal Justice | Learning Resources | Section 4.5

Criminal Justice: An Overview of the System by Adam J. McKee

Section 4.5: Legal Environment of Policing

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Learning Resources

Learning Objectives
4.5(a) Discuss how the Bill of Rights protects citizens from abuses by police.
4.5(b) Define due process and explain how it has been used by the federal courts to protect citizens from abuses by local and state law enforcement.
4.5(c) Identify the origin of and explain the function of the exclusionary rule.
4.5(d) Explain the functioning of the fruit of the poisoned tree doctrine.
4.5(e) Compare and contrast the everyday use of the term arrest is different than the legal meaning of the term.
4.5(f) Summarize the landmark cases regarding searches of vehicles by police officers.
4.5(g) Recite the Miranda warnings and describe Supreme Court decisions that have altered Miranda since it was handed down.
4.5(h) Recite the text of the Fourth Amendment, and explain the meaning of each clause.
4.5(i) Recite the text of the Eighth Amendment, and explain the meaning of each clause.
4.5(j) Discuss the issue of civil liability in policing.

Slide Presentations

For the Classroom:  INTRO-Section-4-5-presentation

For Printing: INTRO-Section-4-5-print

Present from the web:

Key Terms

  • 1983 Suit
  • Affidavit
  • Arrest Warrant
  • Automobile Search
  • Brown v. Mississippi (1936)
  • Consent Search
  • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
  • Exigent Circumstances Exception
  • Fleeing Felon Rule
  • Hot Pursuit Search
  • Inevitable Discovery Exception
  • Knock and Announce
  • Mere Hunch
  • New York v. Quarles (1984)
  • Nix v. Williams (1984)
  • No-knock Warrant
  • Open Fields Doctrine
  • Particularity Requirement
  • Plain View Doctrine
  • Police Brutality
  • Primary Aggressor
  • Public Safety Exception
  • Reasonable Person Test
  • Reasonable Suspicion
  • Remedy
  • Right to Remain Silent
  • Rules of Criminal Procedure
  • Sixth Amendment
  • Stop and Frisk
  • Tennessee v. Garner (1985)
  • Terry Stop
  • U.S. v. Leon (1984)
  • Weeks v. U.S. (1914)

Download a Printable Vocabulary Study Guide [PDF]: Intro_Section_4.5

In your more advanced courses and in your future career, your understanding of many technical and legal terms will be taken for granted.  It is vital that you take the time to really understand the terms presented at the end of each section of this course.  We’ve gone to great lengths to provide you with assistance in mastering this vocabulary.  Don’t forget that there is an extensive glossary that defines all of the bold terms that you will encounter in your reading.  In addition, the vocabulary for each section has been made available on a very useful website called  This site has a wide selection of flashcards for you to study, memorize, test yourself on, and more.  Cram also has a large app store so you can find other mobile flashcards for your Android, iPhone or Windows device, allowing you to take your flashcards on the go. There are even games that add some fun to learning important terms.

Study Flashcards for this vocabulary on

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Last Updated:  04/21/2021

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