Criminal Justice | Learning Resources | Section 2.1

Criminal Justice: An Overview of the System by Adam J. McKee

Section 2.1: Dual Federalism

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Learning Resources

Learning Objectives
2.1(a) Describe the dual court system of the United States.
2.1(b) Explain the role of federal courts in dealing with state cases.
2.1(c) Explain the checks and balances that curtail the power of the courts.
2.1(d) Explain the analogies of “layer cake” and “marble cake” used to describe federalism in the United States today.
2.1(e) Explain the role of local governments in the criminal justice system.


Slide Presentations

For the Classroom:  INTRO-Section-2-1-presentation

For Printing: INTRO-Section-2-1-print

Present from the web:

Key Terms

  • Adversarial (legal system)
  • Bench Trial
  • Bill of Rights
  • Civil Liberties
  • Corrections
  • Courts
  • Crime
  • Criminal Justice System
  • Defendant
  • Defense Attorney
  • Discretion
  • Due Process
  • Due Process Clause
  • Equality (in Justice)
  • Equity (in Justice)
  • Exclusionary Rule
  • Fifth Amendment
  • Finder of Fact
  • Fourteenth Amendment
  • Incarceration
  • Individual Rights
  • Jail
  • Judge
  • Jury
  • Just Deserts
  • Justice
  • Lex Talionis
  • Parole
  • Police
  • Prison
  • Probation
  • Procedural Justice
  • Prosecutor
  • Retributive Justice
  • Rule of Law
  • Sheriff
  • Sheriff’s Deputies
  • Statute
  • Trial by Jury
  • United States Code 

Download a Printable Vocabulary Study Guide [PDF]: Intro_Section_2.1

In your more advanced courses and in your future career, your understanding of many technical and legal terms will be taken for granted.  It is vital that you take the time to really understand the terms presented at the end of each section of this course.  We’ve gone to great lengths to provide you with assistance in mastering this vocabulary.  Don’t forget that there is an extensive glossary that defines all of the bold terms that you will encounter in your reading.  In addition, the vocabulary for each section has been made available on a very useful website called  This site has a wide selection of flashcards for you to study, memorize, test yourself on, and more.  Cram also has a large app store so you can find other mobile flashcards for your Android, iPhone, or Windows device, allowing you to take your flashcards on the go. There are even games that add some fun to learning important terms.

Study Flashcards for this vocabulary on

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Last Updated:  04/21/2021

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