bench trial | Definition

Doc's CJ Glossary by Adam J. McKee
Course: Introduction

A bench trial is a trial without a jury, in which the judge serves as the fact-finder.

We can define a bench trial as a legal proceeding in which a judge, rather than a jury, decides the outcome of a case. In a bench trial, the judge serves as both the fact-finder and the legal decision-maker. This is in contrast to a jury trial, in which a group of jurors is responsible for deciding the facts of the case, while the judge is responsible for ensuring that the law is applied correctly.

Bench trials are often used in cases where a jury trial is not feasible or practical. For example, in some civil cases, one or both parties may choose to waive their right to a jury trial and opt for a bench trial instead. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as to save time and money or to avoid the unpredictability of a jury verdict.

In criminal cases, such trials are less common, but they can occur in situations where a defendant waives their right to a jury trial. This may be done if the defendant believes that they will receive a fairer trial from a judge than from a jury. For example, if a defendant is facing charges in a highly-publicized case, they may worry that the jury will be biased against them. In this case, they may choose to have a bench trial, where the judge is more likely to be impartial.

One advantage of a such a trial is that it can be faster and more efficient than a jury trial. In a jury trial, the process of selecting a jury, presenting evidence, and deliberating can take several days or even weeks. In a bench trial, the judge is able to make decisions more quickly, which can save time and reduce legal costs.

Another advantage of these trials is that the judge is often more experienced and knowledgeable about the law than the jury. This can be especially beneficial in complex cases where legal issues are difficult to understand. In a bench trial, the judge is able to make decisions based on their understanding of the law rather than on the opinions of a group of jurors who may not have the same level of expertise.

However, there are also some disadvantages to bench trials. One of the main disadvantages is that the judge may be biased in favor of one party or the other. While judges are supposed to be impartial and unbiased, they are still human and may have personal biases or prejudices that can affect their decision-making. In a jury trial, the verdict is decided by a group of individuals with different backgrounds and perspectives, which can help to balance out any biases that may be present.

Another disadvantage of a bench trial is that the judge’s decision is final. In a jury trial, the verdict can be appealed if either party believes that the jury was biased or that errors were made during the trial. In a bench trial, however, the judge’s decision is final unless there is evidence of misconduct or errors in the legal process.

Learn More

On This Site

On Other Sites

Stein, A. (2012). The Benefits and Burdens of Bench Trials. Texas Tech Law Review, 45(3), 639-664.

[ Glossary ]

Last Modified: 03/30/2023

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.